The Law on Energy Transition to Green Growth set a trajectory for the tax rate to gradually increase until 2030, up to the rate of 100 €/tCO2e.
Tax base is the amount of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use (covering 70% of Japan’s GHG emissions), with some exemptions for agriculture, public transportation, petrochemical industries, and coal-fired power plants in Okinawa.
Established a carbon tax in 2013 for those sources whose emissions exceed the emissions of natural gas, with the value of the tax capped at 3%, and established MexiCO2, a voluntary exchange that provides carbon credits.
Tax was extended indefinitely in 2012 with extended coverage, and indexing of the tax rate to 100% of the EU ETS price.
A carbon tax on all residential and commercial use of gas and oil not covered by the EU ETS.
Introduced a CO2 levy under the Federal Act on the Reduction of CO2 Emissions covering heating and process fuels as part of a comprehensive climate policy package to decrease the use of fossil fuels.
Targets plants with boilers and turbines whose emission sources sum 50MW or more of nominal thermal power generation.
Introduced in 1991, and has gradually been increased to $140 US/tCO2e in 2018, the highest level in the world.
Applies to industrial entities, largely comprising companies from the cement, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, paper, refinery, or steel sectors. It now covers about 11% of the country’s total GHG emissions.
A ten-state compact (as of July 2020) among mostly Northeastern states to cap carbon emissions from the power sector and use permit auction proceeds to spur clean energy development.