Carbon mitigation programs face several contradictions as they turn to the industrial sector. While the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) points to industry as a high-carbon pollutant end-use sector, it is already efficient in some respects. This is a product of dozens if not hundreds of years of improvement in motors and heat and steam production. Industry plays a declining role in the United States in terms of energy use. Yet industrial carbon emissions reductions must mirror deep decarbonization goals that are set for other sectors in order to hold global average temperature increases within 2°C. And while there are hundreds of cost-effective energy-efficiency measures that manufacturing sub-sectors such as iron and steel and cement and lime could adopt, firms often ignore them. These challenges demand a diverse array of legal and policy responses. The chapter outlines a suite of legal pathways that must be pursued in concert to achieve massive carbon emissions reductions across key energy-intensive industries in the United States.