Provides an assessment of the investments needed across the electric power sector to support the deployment of 20 million EVs in the U.S. by 2030 with a focus on EV charging infrastructure.
A CPUC-convened Working Group report to address value of Vehicle-Grid Integration and supportive policies.
A demonstration project using electric school bus batteries as grid assets.
Found that the Base could make revenue on ancillary services markets with the dispatchable fleet of EV batteries, but lost money overall due to CAISO fees.
Outlined a high-level statewide plan for California to ensure charging is coordinated with grid conditions and the ability for aggregation of EVs to respond to grid operator signals.
Concluded that a simplistic approach where an EV is discharged and charged without consideration of battery degradation is not economically viable because of battery life implications, but an approach guided by a smart control algorithm might be.
Surveys critical elements of V2G economics, including the elements and costs of a V2G system, V2G revenue-generating services and the business cases for providing these services, and real-world V2G applications.