DOE’s 2016 Billion-Ton Report on Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy identifies potential biomass resources of one billion tons or more per year in the United States. For more than a decade, DOE has been quantifying the potential of U.S. biomass resources, under biophysical and economic constraints, for production of renewable energy and bioproducts. The 2016 report evaluates the most recent estimates of potential biomass that could be available for new industrial uses in the future. Volume 1 focuses on resource analysis—projecting biomass potentially available at specified prices. Volume 2 evaluates changes in environmental sustainability indicators— water quality and quantity, greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, soil organic carbon, and biodiversity—associated with select production scenarios. The 2016 report builds on a 2005 Billion-Ton Study and 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update.