The EU’s ELV Directive (2000-53-EC) requires that manufacturers reduce the use of hazardous substances (mercury, hexavalent chromium, cadmium, lead) when designing and producing vehicles. The Directive includes provisions for the collection of end-of-life vehicles and establishes deadlines for material recovery rates. EU Member States are required to establish collection systems for end-of-life vehicles and ensure that all vehicles are transferred to authorized treatment facilities. A 2007 study found that only the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, and Austria had made substantial progress on ELV implementation, citing complex administrative requirements and reluctance by some Member States to impose additional costs on automakers are among the barriers to implementation. The program was also subject to a 2014 Ex-Post Evaluation.